What is the truth behind bio-oxidative therapies? Are they a really a cure for AIDS, or are ozone and hydrogen peroxide ineffective and even dangerous to health? Despite many years of clinical success in Europe, why are they still considered "experimental" and not approved by the FDA?

To answer these question and others John Taggart interviewed Nathaniel Altman, author of "Oxygen Healing Therapies for Optimum Health & Vitality". Mr. Altman has spent the last four years travelling the globe interviewing practitioners of oxidative modalities, visiting their clinics, conversing with their patients and researching the topic.

JT: Exactly what are bio-oxidative therapies?

NA: Bio-oxidative therapies involve administering small amounts of diluted ozone and hydrogen peroxide into the body for the prevention and treatment of disease.
Ozone therapy has been used by licensed physicians in Germany since the early 1960's, while hydrogen peroxide therapy was developed in the United States primarily by Charles H. Farr, M.D., of Oklahoma, a nominee for the 1993 Nobel prize in Medicine.

JT: What is the scientific basis for bio-oxidative therapies?

NA: The philosophy behind bio-oxidative therapies is a simple one. The use of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in medicine is based on the belief that the accumulation of toxins in the body is normally burnt up by the process of oxidation, wherein a substance is changed chemically because of the effect of oxygen upon it.
Oxidation breaks the toxins down into carbon dioxide and water and eliminates them from the body. However, if the oxygen system of the body is weak or deficient, whether through lack of exercise, environmental pollution, poor diet, smoking, or improper breathing, our bodies cannot eliminate them adequately and a toxic reaction can occur.

In minor cases, a toxic buildup can lead to fatigue, while a wide range of diseases can result when poor oxygenation is chronic.

JT: Are these considered "new" therapies?

NA: Although few of us have ever heard of them in this country, bio-oxidative therapies have been around for a long time. They have been used clinically by European physicians for over a century, and were first reported by Dr. T.H. Oliver in the British medical publication The Lancet in 1920.

Since that time, they have been studied in major medical research centers throughout the world, including Baylor University, Yale University, The University of California at Los Angeles and Harvard University in the United States, as well as in medical schools and laboratories in Great Britain, Germany, Russia, Canada, Japan, Cuba, Mexico and Brazil. Today, between fifty and one hundred scientific articles are published each month about the chemical and biological effects of ozone and hydrogen peroxide.

JT: How do they work?

NA: Bio-oxidative therapies add active forms of oxygen to the body through oral, intravenous or transdermal means which is through the skin.
Once in the body, the hydrogen peroxide or ozone break down into various oxygen subspecies which contact anaerobic viruses and microbes as well as diseased or deficient tissue cells. It oxidizes these cells while leaving the healthy cells alone.
When the body becomes saturated with these special forms of oxygen, it reaches a state of purity where disease microorganisms are killed, while the underlying toxicity is oxidized and eliminated.

JT: What exactly is hydrogen peroxide and how is it used therapeutically?

NA: Hydrogen peroxide (H202) is made up of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. A powerful oxidizer, hydrogen peroxide kills bacteria, viruses and fungi. Most of us have used a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide externally to disinfect wounds.
Higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide are used extensively in agriculture, food processing and chemical industries as a disinfectant, water purifier and bleaching agent. It is also a common ingredient in contact lens cleaners, eye drops and mouthwashes.

Hydrogen peroxide is involved in all of life's vital processes, and must be present for the immune system to function properly. The cells in the body that fight infection, known as granulocytes, produce hydrogen peroxide as a first line of defense against invading organisms like parasites, viruses, bacteria and yeast.

It is also required for the metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. As a hormonal regulator, hydrogen peroxide is necessary for the body's production of estrogen, progesterone and thyroxin; it also helps regulate blood sugar and the production of energy in cells.

Hydrogen peroxide has long been used medically as a disinfectant, antiseptic and oxidizer, but has only recently been found to successfully treat a wide variety of human diseases with a minimum of harmful side effects.

The most common form of hydrogen peroxide therapy used by doctors calls for small amounts of 30% reagent grade hydrogen peroxide added to purified water and administered as an intravenous drip. However, some individuals like to add a cup of 35% food grade hydrogen peroxide to a bathtub of warm water; the hydrogen peroxide is absorbed into the body through the skin while the person soaks in the tub.

Others drink a glass of water to which several drops of food or reagent grade hydrogen peroxide have been added. Although there have been reports of improved health with this method, physicians like Dr. Farr believe that taking hydrogen peroxide orally can have a corrosive effect on the stomach and small intestine and advise against using it.

JT: What about ozone? How is it used medically?

NA: Ozone (O3) is an energized form of oxygen with extra electrons. It forms the protective ozone layer around the planet, yet becomes a pollutant when mixed with hydrocarbons like carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide from automobile and factory emissions.

Because scientists in this country have focussed on the negative effects of inhaled ozone, the medicinal aspects of the gas when applied intravenously or through the skin have been largely overlooked in this country.

Since ozone was found to be an effective bactericide and fungicide during the mid-1800's, it was first used to purify drinking water in a number of European cities. Today, over 2000 municipalities around the world- including Montreal, Paris, Los Angeles and Moscow- purify their drinking water with ozone.

However, ozone was not used medically until 1915, when it was found to be an effective disinfectant of wounds and skin diseases during the First World War. It was later found that ozone has the ability to "blast" holes through the membranes of viruses, yeasts, bacteria and abnormal tissue cells and therefore killing them.

Ozone was the focus of considerable research in Germany during the 1930's where it was successfully used to treat patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disorders, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and chronic bacterial diarrhea.

The four primary ways to administer medical ozone include:

Autohemotherapy, which involves removing about one half pint of blood from the patient, adding ozone and oxygen to the blood, and infusing the blood back to the patient.

Rectal insufflation, in which ozone and oxygen is administered as a rectal enema. The ozone/oxygen gas mixture is then absorbed through the large intestine.

Ozone "bagging", which involves having an airtight bag placed around the area to be treated. A mixture of ozone and oxygen is pumped into the bag and absorbed through the skin.

Ozone is also used externally in the form of ozonated olive or sunflower oil.

JT: How can these therapies help people with HIV?

NA: According to Nevada-based Frank Shallenberger, M.D., who is best known in this country for treating AIDS patients with a holistic protocol including ozone, bio-oxidative therapies affect the human body in the following ways:

They stimulate the production of white blood cells, which are necessary to fight infection.

Ozone and hydrogen peroxide are virucidal.

They increase oxygen and hemoglobin disassociation, thus increasing the delivery of oxygen from the blood to the cells.

Ozone and hydrogen peroxide are anti-neoplastic, which means that they inhibit the growth of new tissues like tumors.

They oxidize and degrade petrochemicals.

They increase red blood cell membrane distensibility, thus enhancing their flexibility and effectiveness.

Bio-oxidative therapies increase the production of interferon and Tumor Necrosis Factor, which the body uses to fight infections and cancers.

They increase the efficiency of the anti-oxidant enzyme system, which scavenges excess free radicals in the body.

They accelerate the Citric Acid Cycle, which is the main cycle for the liberation of energy from sugars. This then stimulates basic metabolism. It also breaks down proteins, carbohydrates and fats to be used as energy.

Bio-oxidative therapies increase tissue oxygenation, thus bringing about patient improvement.

JT:. Where has it been shown that ozone can kill HIV?

NA: In-vitro studies to evaluate the ability of ozone to kill the HIV virus in the test tube were undertaken by scientists in the United States, Russia and Canada. The first researchers in the world to prove that ozone can inactivate HIV were Michael T.F. Carpendale, M.D., Chief of Medicine and Research Services at the Veterans Administration Hospital in San Francisco and Professor at the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, and his associate, Dr. Joel K. Freeberg of the Veterans Administration Hospital.

They first presented their findings at the IV International Conference of AIDS in Stockholm, and later published their report in the peer-reviewed journal Antiviral Research. Carpendale and Freeberg showed that HIV could be 99 percent inactivated with only 0.5 micrograms of ozone per ml of serum, and completely inactivated by ozone concentrations of 4 micrograms per ml of serum. At the same time, these concentrations of ozone did not harm healthy cells.

Another in vitro study, supported in part by the U.S. Public Health Service and Medizone International, a manufacturer of a patented medical ozone delivery system, was reported in the October 1, 1991 issue of the medical journal Blood.
Using ozone generated from medical grade oxygen and delivered into a cultured cell medium of HIV-1, a team of four scientists from the SUNY Health Science Center in Syracuse, The Brooklyn Hospital and Merck Pharmaceutical, found that ozone deactivated the virus completely, yet without causing significant biological damage to non-infected cells.

In evaluating their findings with HIV, the researchers concluded:"The data indicate that the antiviral effects of ozone include viral particle disruption, reverse transcriptase inactivation, and/or a perturbation of the ability of the virus to bind its receptor to target cells."

In Russia, scientists at the Institute of Virusology in Moscow also used a concentration of 4 micrograms/ml of ozone on an infected culture containing HIV. Within minutes, the cell of the virus began to decompose and died. The researchers noted that: "Complete deactivation of the extra cell virus is achieved by putting gaseous ozone through the virus-containing liquid."

In 1992, a major study in Canada coordinated by the Surgeon General of the Canadian Armed Forces was undertaken to determine the ability of ozone to kill HIV, hepatitis and herpes viruses in blood used for transfusion. After a three-minute ozonation of serum spiked with one million HIV-1 particles per milliliter, a 100 percent deactivation of the virus was achieved.

Referring to this study during his interview in the video documentary "Ozone and the Politics of Medicine", Capt. (now Commander) Michael E. Shannon, a scientist and medical doctor with the Canadian Department of National Defense said: "...We are dealing not with concentrations that are toxic to the human, but are in fact concentrations of ozone that have been used in clinics in Germany for the last thirty years with thousands of patients without any evidence of any harm."

Despite the importance of the results which would indicate that simple ozonation of the blood supply would render it free of HIV, as well as herpes, hepatitis and other viruses the Canadian findings received little notice in the North American press.

JT: How does ozone kill HIV?

NA: A virus is encapsulated in an envelope made of lipids which are fats or fat-like substances. Tiny bulbs on the virus spikes are known as "receptors". It is through these receptors that a virus can connect with, and eventually infect, other cells.

Through the application of ozone or hydrogen peroxide a number of events rapidly take place. The virus spikes are inactivated because the addition of ozone to the blood changes the structure of the receptor. Although still alive, the virus cannot join with the cell. At the same time, the ozone oxidates the virus' outer envelope. Without this envelope, it cannot survive.

In addition to the effects of hydrogen peroxide introduced from outside the body, the cell itself reacts to the virus. When a cell is threatened, it naturally defends itself by producing its own hydrogen peroxide. In some cases, especially when the cell is unhealthy to begin with, the hydrogen peroxide produced by the cell causes it to "burst" before reproduction of the virus can take place.

In other cases, the peroxides introduced by added ozone or hydrogen peroxide act synergistically with the hydrogen peroxide inside of the cell, which destroy any virus that has penetrated it. Stated more simply, if the cell is unhealthy to begin with, it is destroyed by a hydrogen peroxide burst. If it is strong, it kills off the virus and becomes even stronger than before due to the increased oxygenation brought about by added ozone or hydrogen peroxide. As a result, the virus is either inhibited or destroyed.

As powerful immunomodulators, ozone and hydrogen peroxide can also strengthen a compromised immune system. They can help guard against opportunistic infections and enable persons suffering from the disease to lead longer, more active, and productive lives.

While bio-oxidative therapies should not be considered a cure for AIDS, they may open the door to long-term remission, especially when used in synergistic combination with other immune-strengthening therapies. Investigations are now going on to delineate such combinations, including ozone and/or hydrogen peroxide and oral Alpha-Interferon, staph vaccine, lentinan (shiitake mushroom extract), and Chinese herbs. For updates regarding these combinations, contact the organization "Keep Hope Alive" (P.O. Box 27041, West Allis, WI 53227).

JT: What about clinical studies?

NA: In Germany, Horst Kief, M.D., is believed to be the first physician in the world to treat AIDS patients with hyperbaric ozone "blood washings" in the early 1980's. His standard protocol is a session of autohemotherapy once a week for three months, which can be repeated if necessary. In a monograph published in the German medical journal Erfahrungsheilkunde in July, 1988, he recalled that the patients experienced a near-complete alleviation of various AIDS-related symptoms, including thrush and oral hairy leukoplakia.

In addition, their T4 cell count increased dramatically as well as the T4/T8 ratio over a time period of 65 days. In an interview shown in the award winning documentary "Ozone and the Politics of Medicine", Dr. Kief said that a seven year follow-up of his first patients found them alive, working, and "doing very, very well."

However, the first documented cases of using ozone to treat AIDS was reported by the German physician Alexander Pruess in 1986. In his work with four patients, Dr. Pruess used ozone in combination with Suramin (a reverse transcriptase inhibitor), immunomodulation therapy, vitamin and mineral supplementation, and the hygienation of intestinal flora. He decided to use ozone because:

"As it is well-known that the actual disease(s) occurring through AIDS consists of a combination of viral, fungal and bacteriological infections, I searched for a substance which is viricidal, fungicidal and bactericidal at the same time.

Ozone was here the obvious choice..."

Dr. Pruess noted immediate improvement in all four patients, including the elimination of HIV-related problems like skin diseases, fungal infections, gastrointestinal problems and low energy. Over a year after treatment, all subjects were considered clinically healthy.

In a monograph published in 1993, Dr. Kief wrote about a study comparing 30 patients from the Kief Clinic who were given an enhanced ozone protocol and 20 patients from the University of Frankfurt School of Medicine who received conventional treatment, including AZT. Dr. Kief's patients were observed over 251 days while the Frankfurt patients were observed for 363. T4/T8 ratios rose from 0.324 to 0.352 among Kief's patients, while they fell from 0.293 to 0.223 among the Frankfurt patients.

In the United States, small pilot studies were developed by Dr. Carpendale and Dr. John Griffiss of the Department of Laboratory Medicine at the University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco to find out if there is a role for medical ozone in the treatment of HIV and associated infections.

Using two asymptomatic persons infected with HIV, one known as "Patient G", began with a T-cell count of 309, while the other "Patient I", began with a T-cell count of 907. The treatment protocol consisted of doses of ozone and oxygen given via rectal insufflation daily for 21 days, once every three days for 16 weeks, and once weekly for 15 weeks, for a total of 73 treatments over a period of 34 to 36 weeks. For the next two years, the subjects treated themselves with a three week "booster dose", which was repeated from time to time.

The researchers reported that T-cell levels remained within acceptable levels (i.e. over 430) over the next six years, and both individuals "remained in the best of health, with increased feeling of well being and energy, while on ozone therapy and with no infections and no adverse symptoms of malaise for the first five years".
By that time, "Patient I", who began the study with a higher T-cell level, not only attained a T-cell count of 1185, but was later tested HIV-negative. However, three months into the sixth year, "Patient G" died suddenly from lobar pneumonia (not AIDS-related PCP pneumonia) after getting soaked in a storm making emergency repairs on a roof while recuperating from the flu.

When he died, "Patient G" was still HIV-positive, yet he had maintained a T-cell count between 500 and 700. In their report, which was published in the Proceedings of the Eleventh Ozone World Congress, in 1993, the researchers concluded:

"These normalizing results support the hypothesis that ozone may be effective in suppressing and possibly eliminating HIV, especially in the stages of the disease when the patient is asymptomatic and has a CD4 cell count in the normal range. It also indicates the potential for self treatment for long term prophylaxis, treatment or care."

In a related study, which was published in the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Dr. Carpendale and his associates gave five AIDS patients suffering from intractable diarrhea daily colonic insufflations of ozone (at doses from 2.7 to 30 mg.) for 21 to 28 days.

By the end of the study, three of the four patients were completely relieved of their symptoms, while one patient, whose diarrhea was the result of the parasite cryptosporidium, experienced no change. Relief from secondary infections including herpes simplex, folliculitis and sycosis barbae were also reported. Patients also felt less toxic, less discomfort and more energy than they had before being treated with ozone.

No adverse side effects were reported. Dr. Carpendale was so encouraged by the results of these studies, he has attempted to secure government funding for additional ozone studies involving many more people. He has met with no success.
The results of another pilot study with ozone was presented at the Fourth International Bio-Oxidative Medicine Conference in April 1993 by Dr. Frank Shallenberger, M.D. He administered intravenous ozone to five randomly-selected men diagnosed with AIDS over a period of fourteen days. The total daily dose was calculated to be .15 milligrams of ozone per kilogram of body weight.

On the first day, 1/4 the daily dose was given, on the second, 1/2, and the third, 3/4. From the 4th to the 14th day, the full dose was administered. Patients were carefully monitored and evaluated before and after each treatment. During the period after therapy, no other therapies were given, except for one patient who began taking DDI after the fourth month.

Before the ozone treatments began, each patient participated in a holistic protocol including a whole food nutritional program, meditation and deep breathing, lymphatic drainage massage, nutritional supplements, safe sex practices and regular exercise.

Although Dr. Shallenberger considered the sample too small to be statistically significant, the results included at least a six-month period of overall survival, an immediate increase of the number of T-cells, relief of symptoms from opportunistic infections among most patients, and higher energy levels overall. Shallenberger's clinical observations follow:

S.W (34 years old): Diffuse cutaneous Karposi's Sarcoma of two year duration went into clinical remission for six months before the lesions returned. Otherwise continues to be in good health.

S.S. (27 years old): Chronic diarrhea (cryptosporidium), chronic fatigue, and weight loss >20%. All symptoms disappeared within two months, and the patent remains healthy one year later. CD4 count remains at 7.

R.J. (34 years old): Oral thrush, fatigue, and mild lymphadenopathy [swollen lymph nodes]. Thrush disappeared for six months. Fatigue is gone. Lymphadenopathy has not progressed, and the patient remains in good health one year later.

T.B. (32 years old): Hairy Leukoplakia and mild lymphadenopathy. Neither of these symptoms changed. he remains in otherwise good health one year later.

M.P. (41 years old): Neuro-leukodystrophy. Needs assistance to walk, has urinary incontinence and impotence. Within one week of treatment his incontinence and gait improved considerably. One month later, he was walking easily without assistance and had no incontinence. MRI remains stable, showing no progression of lesions, as does the patient at a ten-month interval."

Shallenberger's findings support the hypothesis that ozone therapy can have long-term positive effects on AIDS patients, although he does not believe that ozone therapy alone can be considered a cure.

When asked about his views on the subject, he replied:

"1. Ozone therapy does not cure AIDS- [it] never has and probably never will.

2. AIDS has a multi-faceted causation and is not an infectious disease. Therapy for AIDS will never work if it is only aimed at anti-infectious protocol.

3. Ozone therapy works in AIDS by acting as an immune system modulator. In this capacity, it is very effective, safe, inexpensive and readily available.

4. Proper therapy for AIDS will be directed at early intervention (i.e. CD4 count >300), ozone plus other synergistic immune-augmented therapy. Intestinal cleansing is paramount due to the immunosuppressive aspect of parasites."

Positive results from bio-oxidative therapies were also reported by John C. Pittman, M.D. from North Carolina. Having worked extensively with HIV and AIDS patients over several years, his holistic treatments including ozone and hydrogen peroxide helped a number of patients to become HIV-negative. He also began to collect data relating to HIV infected patients who received bio-oxidative therapy throughout the country.

One of these patients was a 34-year old man referred to as "D.M." He was diagnosed HIV antibody positive in March 1991 and had a CD4+ T-cell count of 600, considered to be in the low range of normal. In April, 1991 he began receiving autohemotherapy once a day for ten days, along with intravenous hydrogen peroxide and intravenous vitamins, including especially large amounts of Vitamin C.

In July, he repeated a 30 day treatment protocol with ozone, hydrogen peroxide, vitamins and anti-viral compounds, as well as nutritional therapies designed to aid in intestinal cleansing and metabolic detoxification. During the first two weeks of therapy, D.M. experienced fever and a drop in his T-cell count to 400, which Dr. Pittman attributed to a die-off of virus particles and infected lymphocytes.

Following the 30-day protocol, D.M. reported that his enlarged neck and inguinal lymph nodes became much smaller. Laboratory tests showed that his CD4+ T cell count rose to 900.

Since that time Dr. Pittman reported that D.M. had continued receiving occasional treatments with ozone and Vitamin C. By November, 1992, his T4 helper cell count reached 1400, and his enlarged lymph nodes had returned to normal. Although D.M. still tested HIV antibody positive, there was no sign of viral activity by P24 antigen testing.

Like Dr. Shallenberger, his treatment protocol encompasses a holistic approach. Dr. Pittman recommends using intravenous ozone, intravenous hydrogen peroxide, intravenous Vitamin C, EDTA chelation and transdermal oxygenation using baths with ozone and hydrogen peroxide or hyperbaric oxygen as well as metabolic and intestinal detoxification, a raw and living food diet, nutritional supplements and exercise.

Heartened by the in-vitro blood studies done by the Canadian Armed Forces mentioned earlier, the Canadian Government decided to sponsor a study with actual AIDS patients. Coordinated by Michael E. Shannon, M.D. in collaboration with Dr. Michael O'Shaughnessy, a virologist with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control in Ottawa, 24 volunteers suffering from AIDS were studied in two trials using minor autohemotherapy.

The Phase I study, which involved ten patients, showed an increase of T-cells among those who had 300 or more to begin with, while those who had 90 T-cells or less experienced a decrease. A Phase II random study was then begun with fourteen patients, with half to receive ozone treatments and the other half a placebo.

However, the findings were inconclusive because the ozone generator used in the study failed to produce ozone. Since the study was double-blinded, no one knew about the defect until it was too late.

However, in a private communication I received from Cmdr. Shannon in January 1994, he wrote:

"Of interest, however, the three patients (out of ten volunteers) who responded to minor autohemotherapy in the first trial, are still alive after four years post-treatment, with CD4 counts in excess of two hundred. These patients theoretically should have succumbed to AIDS within a year post-treatment."

Dr. Shannon added that although these initial results must still be explained, there was little interest within the Health Protection Branch of Health and Welfare Canada to pursue the matter further.

At the time of this writing, no large-scale research is being done on the ability of ozone to treat AIDS. Medizone International, which holds a patent on a unique medical ozone delivery system, is engaged in a multi-centered Phase II Clinical Trial in Italy using major autohemotherapy, while two smaller studies are being sponsored by independent research foundations in the United States.

JT: What about prevention?

NA: During my interviews with scientists from the National Center for Scientific Research in Havana last year while doing research for my book Oxygen Healing Therapies, I spoke with Dr. Silvia Menendez, a chemist who co-founded the Department of Ozone in 1985.

Based on her work with several HIV-infected people in Cuba, she told me that ozone works best when administered as soon as possible after infection with HIV, because the virus has not yet penetrated the lymphatic system and bone marrow.
If caught early, she believes that ozone could deactivate the virus in the blood, and prevent it from infecting other cells. She added that ozone therapy could help prevent and treat some of the opportunistic infections that are common among AIDS patients.

Her comment regarding the early use of ozone for those infected with HIV is very important. If a person could be treated with ozone as soon as possible after infection, perhaps the normal progression of the disease could be interrupted. The economic and social ramifications of this possibility cannot be underestimated.

JT: Why is there so much controversy about these therapies in North America?

NA: The use of bio-oxidative therapies is fraught with controversy. On one hand, the pharmaceutical companies, which stand to earn billions of dollars in profits from anti-AIDS medications, are completely opposed to the use of inexpensive, safe and potentially effective substances like hydrogen peroxide and ozone in treating this disease.

In addition, many physicians are either ignorant of or hostile towards using therapies that can be self-administered, like the sauna bag and rectal insufflation methods mentioned earlier.

These are some of the reasons why many reputable and caring physicians who have treated AIDS patients with ozone and hydrogen peroxide have been threatened by state licensing authorities, and have had their practices closed down.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have refused to sponsor humans trials for ozone and hydrogen peroxide, and have made it extremely difficult for small independent companies like Medizone International to undertake such research.

Despite the fact that over ten million patients (including over a thousand AIDS patients) have received ozone therapy in Europe, and that reliable data on the use of ozone and hydrogen peroxide is supported by hundreds of scientific articles and clinical studies, the Food and Drug Administration still maintains that bio-oxidative therapies like ozone have not been proven either safe or effective.

In the words of Dr. Randolph F. Wykoff, the Director of the Office of AIDS Coordination and the acting Associate Commissioner for Science, Food and Drug Administration testifying before the Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice at the House of Representatives in Washington on May 27, 1993:

"Ozone therapy has also been used to treat AIDS patients without any scientific data to support the agent's safety or effectiveness. Ozone therapy and ozone generators have been promoted in magazines and newspaper advertisements and in books, videos, and audio cassettes. The introduction of ozone into immunosupressed AIDS patients without careful study of probable toxicities places the patients at unreasonable and significant risks."

The political and economic situation in the United States and Canada has led many patients to seek treatment elsewhere, primarily in Mexico. While there are several reputable clinics in this country, some unethical promoters have held out promises for a cure at a price approaching $20,000.

One scheme even offered patients six-figure salaries if they could promote their success to other prospective patients later on, especially to those who owned homes that could be mortgaged for $100,000 to pay for treatment. Until health care consumers speak out to their elected representatives, we will continue to be denied the right to choose the forms of health care we want. Large scale clinical studies regarding the effectiveness of ozone and hydrogen peroxide to treat AIDS will never be done, and research funding will continue to fall on the individual researchers themselves.

Doctors will be forced to continue to administer these therapies illegally and surreptitiously, and many people without access to these physicians will continue to self-administer the ozone or hydrogen peroxide. While amazingly few adverse side effects have been reported, no one should ever be forced to self-medicate without the benefit of supervision from a qualified health professional.

Entrepreneurs eager to fill their pockets will offer magical cures costing tens of thousands of dollars, while many individuals who are infected with HIV or who are dying of AIDS will decide to "go for broke" and try untested treatments from clinics of dubious reputation. Those with the strength and the financial resources will choose to leave their family and friends and seek reliable care in Germany, Italy or Cuba.

JT: But why doesn't the FDA encourage clinical trials on these therapies?

NA: Because United States government agencies like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry and medical lobbies, objective investigation and development of effective protocols for bio-oxidative therapies have been difficult to undertake in this country.

According to Dr. Carpendale

"In the FDA, the drug companies have representatives on nearly all the committees. If there's something which may be very effective but may undersell the average drug company, of course they are not going to be very pleased if it gets developed. It might be very difficult for them to compete with that. And ozone is obviously inexpensive to produce, it is very potent [and] if it works half as well as the Germans claim it does, everyone should be using it."

JT: What is the future of bio-oxidative therapies?

NA: The situation may be changing. After reviewing the laboratory and clinical evidence regarding the use of ozone and hydrogen peroxide, a recent report by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on Alternative Medical Systems and Practices in the United States has recommended that "definitive studies be undertaken to determine whether these treatments have any utility".

At the same time, a number of states, including New York and North Carolina, have recently passed "freedom of medicine" laws which allow the use of experimental therapies by licensed practitioners. A growing number of physicians are sharing their clinical data with the goal of presenting their findings to government agencies like the NIH and FDA.

Medical ozone and hydrogen peroxide form the "cutting edge" of a new healing paradigm, involving safe, effective, natural and less costly forms of medical therapy for AIDS patients and others infected with HIV. As more people discover the value of these therapies, there will be greater consumer demand.

As more physicians become acquainted with the value of these therapies and learn how to use them according to established medical protocols, they will become a valuable part of mainstream medical therapy.